Author(s): Slovak ML
The associations of cytogenetics with complete remission (CR) rates, overall survival (OS), and outcomes after CR were studied in 609 previously untreated AML patients younger than 56 years old in a clinical trial comparing 3 intensive postremission therapies: intensive chemotherapy, autologous transplantation (ABMT), or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) from matched related donors. Patients were categorized into favorable, intermediate, unfavorable, and unknown cytogenetic risk groups based on pretreatment karyotypes. CR rates varied significantly (P <.0001) among the 4 groups: favorable, 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77%-90%); intermediate, 76% (CI, 71%-81%); unfavorable, 55% (CI, 48%-63%); and unknown, 54% (CI, 33%-74%). There was similar significant heterogeneity of OS (P <.0001), with the estimated relative risk of death from any cause being 1.50 (CI, 1.10-2.05), 3. 33 (CI, 2.43-4.55), and 2.66 (CI, 1.59-4.45) for the intermediate, unfavorable, and unknown risk groups, respectively, compared with the favorable group. In multivariate analyses, the effects of cytogenetic risk status on CR rate and OS could not be explained by other patient or disease characteristics. Among postremission patients, survival from CR varied significantly among favorable, intermediate, and unfavorable groups (P =.0003), with significant evidence of interaction (P =.017) between the effects of treatment and cytogenetic risk status on survival. Patients with favorable cytogenetics did significantly better following ABMT and alloBMT than with chemotherapy alone, whereas patients with unfavorable cytogenetics did better with alloBMT. Cytogenetic risk status is a significant factor in predicting response of AML patients to therapy; however, to tighten treatment correlates within genetically defined AML subsets, a significantly larger leukemia cytogenetic database is warranted.