alexa Ketamine enhances human neural stem cell proliferation and induces neuronal apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

Author(s): Bai X, Yan Y, Canfield S, Muravyeva MY, Kikuchi C,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that ketamine causes neurotoxicity in a variety of developing animal models, leading to a serious concern regarding the safety of pediatric anesthesia. However, if and how ketamine induces human neural cell toxicity is unknown. Recapitulation of neurogenesis from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro allows investigation of the toxic effects of ketamine on neural stem cells (NSCs) and developing neurons, which is impossible to perform in humans. In the present study, we assessed the influence of ketamine on the hESC-derived NSCs and neurons. METHODS: hESCs were directly differentiated into neurons via NSCs. NSCs and 2-week-old neurons were treated with varying doses of ketamine for different durations. NSC proliferation capacity was analyzed by Ki67 immunofluorescence staining and bromodeoxyuridine assay. Neuroapoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL staining and caspase 3 activity measurement. The mitochondria-related neuronal apoptosis pathway including mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c distribution within cells, mitochondrial fission, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also investigated. RESULTS: Ketamine (100 µM) increased NSC proliferation after 6-hour exposure. However, significant neuronal apoptosis was only observed after 24 hours of ketamine treatment. In addition, ketamine decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol. Ketamine also enhanced mitochondrial fission as well as ROS production compared with no-treatment control. Importantly, Trolox, a ROS scavenger, significantly attenuated the increase of ketamine-induced ROS production and neuronal apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data for the first time demonstrate that (1) ketamine increases NSC proliferation and causes neuronal apoptosis; (2) mitochondria are involved in ketamine-induced neuronal toxicity, which can be prevented by Trolox; and (3) the stem cell-associated neurogenesis system may provide a simple and promising in vitro model for rapidly screening anesthetic neurotoxicity and studying the underlying mechanisms as well as prevention strategies to avoid this toxic effect.
This article was published in Anesth Analg and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords