alexa Ketamine NMDA receptor-independent toxicity during zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development.


Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology

Author(s): Flix LM

Abstract Share this page

Concerns have been raised that the effect of anaesthetic drugs on the central nervous system may result in long-term impairment, namely when ketamine is used during embryogenesis. In addition, the cell and molecular basis of anaesthetics teratology and toxicity are still uncertain and its implications in the development remain to be clarified. More recently, the potential risks for human, and animal, exposure through environmental contamination also became an important question. In this study, the effects of sub- and over anaesthetic doses of ketamine were investigated during zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development by exposing zebrafish embryos to ketamine concentrations (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg mL(-1)) for a period of 20 min during the blastula stage. Ethanol 2% was used as a positive control. Morphological parameters, the overall pattern of cell death using acridine orange and overall degree of oxidative stress levels by 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate were determined. Lethality and/or developmental anomalies were measured based on specific time endpoints until 144 h post fertilisation. Results showed a concentration-dependent increase in anomalies and mortality. Cephalic disorders, enlarged organs and tail/spine anomalies were the most prominent deformities observed at 144 hpf. Acridine orange images revealed no differences in cellular death pattern in exposed embryos at 24 hpf. At the same time point, the cellular redox processes were found to be similar among groups. In summary, this study shows that ketamine is teratogen and toxic, interfering with the normal developmental pathways of embryogenesis, suggesting that ketamine exerts an independent NMDA receptor action during the zebrafish blastula stage.

This article was published in Neurotoxicol Teratol. and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version