Author(s): Palazzuoli A, McCullough PA, Ronco C, Nuti R
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Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in heart failure (HF) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome, although the most important clinical trials tend to exclude patients with moderate and severe renal insufficiency. Despite this common association, the precise pathophysiological connection and liaison between heart and kidney is partially understood. Moreover, is it not enough considering how much cardio-renal syndrome type 1 is attributable to previous CKD, and how much to new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI). Neither development of AKI, its progression and time nor duration is related to an adverse outcome. An AKI definition is not universally recognized, and many confounding terms have been used in literature: "worsening renal function", "renal impairment", "renal dysfunction", etc., are all names that contribute to misunderstanding, and do not facilitate an universal classification. Therefore, AKI development should be the consequence of the basal clinical characteristics of patients, different primitive kidney disease and hemodynamic status. AKI could also be the mirror of several underlying associated diseases poorly controlled. Finally, it is not clear which is the optimal laboratory tool for identifying patients with an increased risk of AKI. In the current report, we review the different kidney diseases' impact in HF, and we analyze the modalities for AKI recognition during HF focusing our attention about some new biomarkers with potential application in the current setting.
This article was published in Intern Emerg Med
and referenced in Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis