Author(s): Kalavathy MH, Karthikeyan T, Rajgopal S, Miranda LR
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Abstract Adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution onto H(3)PO(4)-activated carbon using rubber wood sawdust (RSAC) was investigated in a batch system. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by considering the effects of various parameters, such as initial concentration, contact time, pH, and temperature. The optimal pH value for Cu(II) adsorption onto RSAC was found to be 6.0. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(0)), standard enthalpy (DeltaH(0)), and standard entropy (DeltaS(0)) were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamics of Cu(II) adsorption onto RSAC indicates its spontaneous and exothermic nature. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. The Langmuir isotherm fits the experimental data significantly better than the other isotherms. Adsorption kinetics data were tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order reaction. The initial sorption rate, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion rate constants for different initial concentrations were evaluated and discussed. Adsorption mechanism studies revealed that the process was complex and followed both surface adsorption and particle diffusion. The rate-controlling parameter and effective diffusion coefficient were determined using the Reichenberg plot. It was found that the adsorption occurs through film diffusion at low concentrations and at higher concentration the particle diffusion becomes the rate-determining step.
This article was published in J Colloid Interface Sci
and referenced in Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials