Author(s): van den Berg JJ, Op den Kamp JA, Lubin BH, Roelofsen B, Kuypers FA
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Abstract To provide a detailed description of the time course and the site specificity of hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in red blood cells (RBCs), we have characterized the action of a membrane-soluble (cumene hydroperoxide [cumOOH]) and a water-soluble (hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]) oxidant. The fluorescent polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) parinaric acid (PnA) was used to probe peroxidation processes in the membrane, and oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb) was measured spectrophotometrically as an indicator of cytosolic oxidative stress. The observed degradation patterns of PnA and Hb were clearly distinct for each oxidant. At comparable oxidant concentrations, the cumulative oxidative stress on the RBC membrane was always much higher with cumOOH, whereas much more Hb oxidation was measured with H2O2. The kinetics of Hb oxidation as well as the nature of the products formed were different for each oxidant. The main Hb oxidation product generated gradually by cumOOH was metHb, whereas H2O2 caused the rapid formation of ferrylHb. CumOOH caused more oxidation of endogenous PUFAs and of vitamin E, while the degradation pattern of vitamin E closely resembled that of PnA. At high oxidant concentrations, extensive cell lysis was observed after prolonged incubation. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) completely prevented oxidation of endogenous PUFAs but did not completely prevent hemolysis, indicating that factors other than lipid peroxidation are also important in causing lysis of RBCs. The action of cumOOH is characterized by a gradual reaction with Hb, generating radicals that produce an oxidative stress primarily directed at the membrane, which increases in time to a maximum and then gradually decreases. In contrast, H2O2 crosses the RBC membrane and reacts rapidly with Hb, generating a very reactive radical species that has Hb, not the membrane, as a prime target. H2O2-induced oxidative stress is at a maximum immediately after addition of this oxidant and decreases rapidly to zero in a short time. These findings provide further insight into the mode of action of hydroperoxides and the mechanism of compartmentalization of RBC oxidative damage.
This article was published in Free Radic Biol Med
and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry