Author(s): Sun X, Salih E, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ, Sun X, Salih E, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ
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Abstract The present study was undertaken to investigate the rate and mode of degradation of individual histatin proteins in whole saliva to establish the impact on its functional domains. Pure synthetic histatins 1, 3, and 5 were incubated with whole saliva supernatant as the enzyme source, and peptides in the resultant digests were separated by reverse-phase-HPLC and structurally characterized by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The overall V(max)/K(m) ratios, a measure of proteolytic efficiency, were on the order of histatin-5 > histatin-3 > histatin-1. Mathematical models predict that histatins 1, 3, and 5 levels in whole saliva stabilize at 5.1, 1.9, and 1.2 microM, representing 59, 27, and 11\% of glandular histatins 1, 3, and 5 levels, respectively. Monitoring of the appearance and disappearance of histatin fragments yielded the identification of the first targeted enzymatic cleavage sites as K(13) and K(17) in histatin 1, R(22), Y(24), and R(25) in histatin 3, and Y(10), K(11), R(12), K(13), H(15), E(16), K(17), and H(18) in histatin 5. The data indicate that metal-binding, antifungal, and wound-healing domains are largely unaffected by the primary cleavage events in whole saliva, suggesting a sustained functional activity of these proteins in the proteolytic environment of the oral cavity.
This article was published in FASEB J
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research