Author(s): Lennick M, Brew SA, Ingham KC
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Abstract The kinetics of inhibition of the complement serine protease, C1s, by its only known inhibitor, C1 inhibitor, have been measured by a variety of methods. One method continuously monitors the loss of esterolytic activity with a synthetic substrate coupled to a chromogen while another monitors the formation of a stable (covalent) complex by high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography under dissociating conditions. Additional methods employ fluorescence probes to follow the formation of bimolecular complexes but are not expected to distinguish between covalent product and noncovalent (reversible) intermediates. There was good agreement between rate constants obtained by the various methods over a broad range of inhibitor concentrations, suggesting that noncovalent intermediates do not accumulate to a significant extent. The reaction appears to be pure second order with a bimolecular rate constant of 6.0 X 10(4) M-1 s-1 at 30 degrees C, independent of Ca2+, and an activation energy of 11.0 kcal/mol. The rate increases up to 35-fold in the presence of heparin which was shown to bind to all three components (enzyme, inhibitor, and complex) with similar affinity (Kd = 2.0-3.3 microM). The fluorescent probe 1,1'-bis(anilino)-4-,4'-bi(naphthalene)-8,8'-disulfonate [bis(ANS)] bound to the complex with Kd = 0.26 microM under conditions where the individual components had little affinity for the dye, consistent with the generation of one or more hydrophobic binding sites on the protein surface during complex formation.
This article was published in Biochemistry
and referenced in Journal of Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases