Author(s): Armani AM, Kulkarni RP, Fraser SE, Flagan RC, Vahala KJ
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Abstract Current single-molecule detection techniques require labeling the target molecule. We report a highly specific and sensitive optical sensor based on an ultrahigh quality (Q) factor (Q > 10(8)) whispering-gallery microcavity. The silica surface is functionalized to bind the target molecule; binding is detected by a resonant wavelength shift. Single-molecule detection is confirmed by observation of single-molecule binding events that shift the resonant frequency, as well as by the statistics for these shifts over many binding events. These shifts result from a thermo-optic mechanism. Additionally, label-free, single-molecule detection of interleukin-2 was demonstrated in serum. These experiments demonstrate a dynamic range of 10(12) in concentration, establishing the microcavity as a sensitive and versatile detector.
This article was published in Science
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology