Author(s): Wei M, Kakehashi A, Yamano S, Tamano S, Shirai T,
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Abstract The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the hepatocarcinogenicity of concurrent treatment of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in rats and to determine whether no effect levels of combinations of these two different structural categories of genotoxic hepatocarcinogens exist. Two 16-week rat hepatocarcinogenesis assays were performed using a total of 790 male F344 rats. In experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of concurrent treatment of a subcarcinogenic dose of DEN on rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by various doses of MeIQx. In experiment 2, we determined hepatocarcinogenicities of combinations of MeIQx and DEN at subcarcinogenic doses, low carcinogenic doses and high carcinogenic doses. Quantitative analyses of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci, a preneoplastic lesion of the liver in rats, revealed that concurrent treatment with subcarcinogenic doses of DEN did not enhance MeIQx-induced rat hepatocarcinogenicity. We also found that concurrent treatment with combinations of subcarcinogenic doses of DEN and MeIQx was not hepatocarcinogenic, indicating that the combined effects of subcarcinogenic doses of DEN and MeIQx were neither additive nor synergistic. Moreover, concurrent treatment with low carcinogenic doses of these 2 carcinogens did not show additive or synergistic effects. Synergetic effects were observed only in rats coadministered high carcinogenic doses of the 2 carcinogens. These results demonstrate the existence of no effect levels of combinations of these 2 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, and provide new evidence supporting our idea that there is a threshold, at least a practical threshold, that should be considered when evaluating the risk of genotoxic carcinogens. ( ; : -).
This article was published in J Toxicol Pathol
and referenced in Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis