Author(s): Hirata M, Goto T, Barnes G, Umekawa Y, Yanagisawa T,
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Abstract OBJECT: Event-related cerebral oscillatory changes reflect regional brain activation. In a previous study, the authors proposed a new method to determine language dominance: examine frontal oscillatory changes during silent reading by using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). The authors' aims in the present study were to establish a normal template for this method, to confirm the results of their previous study with a larger patient population, and to evaluate their method with respect to language localization. METHODS: A statistical group analysis of 14 healthy volunteers was conducted to establish a normal control. Language dominance and localization were then evaluated in a larger population of 123 consecutive patients. Study participants were instructed to silently read 100 visually presented words. Using SAM, the spatial distribution of the oscillatory changes was obtained as the Student t statistic by comparing the current density for each voxel between 1 second before and 1 second after each word presentation. Group analyses of the healthy volunteers were performed using statistical nonparametric mapping. Language dominance in the patients was determined according to the laterality index (LI) calculated using peak t values of the left and right frontal desynchronizations. Language dominance was prospectively assessed, and the results were compared with those of the Wada test (63 patients). Language localization results were quantitatively compared with those of stimulation mapping (17 patients). RESULTS: Group analysis of the healthy volunteers indicated beta to low gamma band desynchronization in the left frontal area and alpha to beta desynchronization in the left parietotemporal areas. In patients, the frontal language areas were detected in 118 persons (95.9\%). Lateralization of beta or low gamma desynchronization in the inferior or middle frontal gyri corresponded well with language dominance. The introduction of the LI resulted in a quantitative evaluation of language dominance, whose results were concordant with those of the Wada test in 51 (85.0\%) of 60 cases. The distance between the estimated frontal language areas and stimulation-positive sites was 6.0 +/- 7.1 mm (mean +/- SD). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first in which magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine language dominance in a large population, and the results were compared with those of the Wada test. Moreover, language localization results obtained using MEG were compared with those obtained by invasive mapping. The authors' method, which is based on neuromagnetic oscillatory changes, is a new approach for noninvasively evaluating the frontal language areas, a procedure that has been problematic using MEG dipole methods. Synthetic aperture magnetometry is a noninvasive alternative to Wada testing for language dominance and helps to determine stimulation sites for invasive mapping.
This article was published in J Neurosurg
and referenced in Pediatrics & Therapeutics