Author(s): Carewreid J
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Abstract PIP: For some 10 years, from the early 1970s international strategies for sustainable development were concentrated on how to tackle common problems such as population or human settlements. From the early 1980s, there was a growing interest governments in strategies at a national level. By the end of 1993, close to 100 countries will have embarked upon some form of comprehensive national strategy. International strategies followed the first global conference on the human environment in 1972 and the creation of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Initially, countries took their lead from the World Conservation Strategy (WCS), prepared by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) in collaboration with UNEP and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The WCS promoted the preparation of national conservation strategies (NCS), and for the first half of the 1980s this concept guided national attempts to reconcile conservation with development. By 1985, some 30 countries had embarked on a NCS process, many with assistance from IUCN. The World Commission on Environment and Development, which ran from 1985 to 1987, led to a second wave of initiatives. In 1987, the World Bank began assisting four pilot countries in Africa in the preparation of National Environment Action Plans (NEAPs). By 1991, some 10 additional NEAPS had been started in response to a World Bank precondition to the least-developed countries receiving World Bank loans. In 1992, this directive was expanded to cover all 110 of the Bank's borrower countries. By June 1993, the Bank estimated that 50 countries had embarked on some form of NEAP process. Over the past two decades, there has been an increase in the number and type of strategies considered key elements in development assistance and essential for sustainable development. Over the past year, IUCN's strategy networks have examined more than 40 local and national strategies.
This article was published in People Planet
and referenced in Business and Economics Journal