alexa Leishmania lipophosphoglycan activates the transcription factor activating protein 1 in J774A.1 macrophages through the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

Author(s): Balaraman S, Singh VK, Tewary P, Madhubala R

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Abstract Leishmania donovani is an obligatory intracellular pathogen that resides and multiplies in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The outcome of this infection depends on the balance between the host ability to activate macrophage killing and the parasite ability to suppress or evade this host immune response. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) glycoconjugate, the surface molecule of the protozoan parasite is a virulence determinant and a major parasite molecule involved in this process. In this study, we examined the ability of Leishmania and its surface molecule, lipophosphoglycan to activate activating protein 1 (AP-1) through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. We report here that the Leishmania surface molecule, lipophosphoglycan stimulates the simultaneous activation of all three classes of MAP kinases, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), the c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and the p38 MAP kinase with differential kinetics in J774A.1 macrophage cell line. Furthermore, both L. donovani and its surface molecule lipophosphoglycan resulted in a dose- and time-dependent induction of AP-1 DNA-binding activity. We have also shown a dose-dependent increase of AP-1 binding activity in both low and high virulent strains of parasite. The use of inhibitors selective for ERK (PD98059) and p38 (SB203580) pathway showed that pre-incubation of cells with either SB203580 or PD98059 affected the binding activity of AP-1 suggesting that both p38 and ERK MAP kinase activation appear to be necessary for AP-1 activation by LPG. Lipophosphoglycan induced IL-12 production and generation of nitric oxide in murine macrophages. These results demonstrate that L. donovani LPG activates pro-inflammatory, endotoxin-like response pathway in J774A.1 macrophages and the interaction may play a pivotal role in the elimination of the parasite. This article was published in Mol Biochem Parasitol and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

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