alexa Leptin modulates beta cell expression of IL-1 receptor antagonist and release of IL-1beta in human islets.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Author(s): Maedler K

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High concentrations of glucose induce beta cell production of IL-1beta, leading to impaired beta cell function and apoptosis in human pancreatic islets. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a naturally occurring antagonist of IL-1beta and protects cultured human islets from glucotoxicity. Therefore, the balance of IL-1beta and IL-1Ra may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In the present study, we observed expression of IL-1Ra in human pancreatic beta cells of nondiabetic individuals, which was decreased in tissue sections of type 2 diabetic patients. In vitro, chronic exposure of human islets to leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, decreased beta cell production of IL-1Ra and induced IL-1beta release from the islet preparation, leading to impaired beta cell function, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis. Exogenous addition of IL-1Ra protected cultured human islets from the deleterious effects of leptin. Antagonizing IL-1Ra by introduction of small interfering RNA to IL-1Ra into human islets led to caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and impaired beta cell function. Moreover, siIL-1Ra enhanced glucose-induced beta cell apoptosis. These findings demonstrate expression of IL-1Ra in the human beta cell, providing localized protection against leptin- and glucose-induced islet IL-1beta.

This article was published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

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