Author(s): Zhou W, Guo S, GonzalezPerez RR
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Leptin and interleukin-1 (IL-1) upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), promote angiogenesis and are related to worse prognosis of breast cancer. However, it is unknown whether leptin regulates IL-1, and whether these effects are related to leptin-induction of VEGF/VEGFR2 in breast cancer. METHODS: Several genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to determine the mechanisms involved in leptin regulation of IL-1 system (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra and IL-1R tI) and the impact of IL-1 signalling on leptin-induced VEGF/VEGFR2 expression in mouse mammary cancer 4T1 cells (a model that resembles invasive and highly metastatic human breast cancer). RESULTS: Leptin increased protein and mRNA levels of all components of the IL-1 system. IL-1 upregulation involved leptin activation of JAK2/STAT3, MAPK/ERK 1/2, PI-3K/AKT1, PKC, p38 and JNK. Leptin-induced phosphorylation of mTOR/4E-BP1 increased IL-1β and IL-1Ra expression, but downregulated IL-1α. Leptin upregulation of IL-1α promoter was linked to SP1 and NF-κB transcription factors. In addition, leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) was upregulated by leptin. Interestingly, leptin upregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 was partially mediated by IL-1/IL-1R tI signalling. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that leptin induces several signalling pathways to upregulate the translational and transcriptional expression of IL-1 system in breast cancer cells. Moreover, leptin upregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 was impaired by IL-1 signalling blockade. These data suggest that leptin pro-angiogenic signature in breast cancer is linked to, or regulated, in part by IL-1 signalling.
This article was published in Br J Cancer
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology