Author(s): Scalia R, Appel JZ rd, Lefer AM
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Abstract The early effects of hypercholesterolemia on leukocyte-endothelium interaction were studied in vivo in the rabbit mesenteric microcirculation. Rabbits fed a 0.5\% high-cholesterol (HC) diet showed elevated plasma cholesterol levels during the 1 to 2 weeks of HC feeding (P<0.001 versus control diet-fed rabbits). Intravital microscopy of mesenteric venules revealed that leukocyte rolling had increased 10-fold (P<0.001 versus control-fed group) at the end of the first week of the HC diet, which was sustained after 2 weeks of HC feeding (P<0.001 versus control-fed rabbits). Firm adherence of leukocytes to the endothelium was moderately increased after a 1-week period of hypercholesterolemia (P<0.05) but increased by 12-fold at 2 weeks (P<0.001 versus control diet-fed and P<0.01 versus 1-week HC-fed rabbits). Upregulation of the endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was observed immunohistochemically on the intestinal microvascular endothelium of HC-fed rabbits. P-selectin was maximally expressed within the first week of the HC diet and remained elevated during the second week of cholesterol feeding (P<0.01 versus control). In contrast, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were moderately upregulated at 1 week but were highly expressed after 2 weeks of the HC diet (P<0.05 and P<0.001 versus control, respectively). Basal release of NO from both mesenteric microvascular and aortic endothelium in cholesterol-fed rabbits was progressively reduced after 1 (P<0.05) and 2 (P<0.01) weeks. Our data suggest that enhanced leukocyte-endothelium interaction occurs in vivo in the rabbit microcirculation during the first 2 weeks of hypercholesterolemia. This phenomenon is associated with impaired basal NO release and progressive endothelial surface expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ie, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) in the microvasculature.
This article was published in Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology