Author(s): Noorlander CW, van Leeuwen SP, Te Biesebeek JD, Mengelers MJ, Zeilmaker MJ
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Abstract This study presents concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food and the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in The Netherlands. The concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food were analyzed in pooled samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in several Dutch retail store chains with nation-wide coverage. The concentrations analyzed for PFOS and PFOA were used to assess the exposure to these compounds in The Netherlands. As concentrations in drinking water in The Netherlands were missing for these compounds, conservative default concentrations of 7 pg/g for PFOS and 9 pg/g for PFOA, as reported by European Food Safety Authority, were used in the exposure assessment. In food, 6 out of 14 analyzed perfluorinated compounds could be quantified in the majority of the food categories (perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and PFOS). The highest concentration of the sum of these six compounds was found in crustaceans (825 pg/g product, PFOS: 582 pg/g product) and in lean fish (481 pg/g product, PFOS: 308 pg/g product). Lower concentrations were found in beef, fatty fish, flour, butter, eggs, and cheese (concentrations between 20 and 100 pg/g product; PFOS, 29-82 pg/g product) and milk, pork, bakery products, chicken, vegetable, and industrial oils (concentration lower than 10 pg/g product; PFOS not detected). The median long-term intake for PFOS was 0.3 ng/kg bw/day and for PFOA 0.2 ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding high level intakes (99th percentile) were 0.6 and 0.5 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. These intakes were well below the tolerable daily intake values of both compounds (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day). The intake calculations quantified the contribution of drinking water to the PFOS and PFOA intake in The Netherlands. Important contributors of PFOA intake were vegetables/fruit and flour. Milk, beef, and lean fish were important contributors of PFOS intake.
This article was published in J Agric Food Chem
and referenced in Hydrology: Current Research