Author(s): Mller MR, Wiesmller KH, Jung G, Loop T, Humar M,
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Abstract Bacteria-derived synthetic lipoproteins constitute potent macrophage activators in vivo and are effective stimuli, enhancing the immune response especially with respect to low or non-immunogenic compounds. N-palmitoyl-S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2R,S)-propyl]-(R)-cysteinyl-seryl-(lysyl)3-lysine (P3CSK4), exhibiting one of the most effective lipopeptide derivatives, represents a highly efficient immunoadjuvant in parenteral, oral, nasal and genetic immunization either in combination with or after covalent linkage to antigen. In order to further elucidate its molecular mode of action with respect to the transcriptional level, we focused our investigations on the P3CSK4-induced modulation of gene transcription. We could show that P3CSK4 activates/represses an array of at least 140 genes partly involved in signal transduction and regulation of the immune response. P3CSK4 activates the expression of tumor suppressor protein p53 (p53), c-rel, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) alpha (IkappaB alpha), type 2 (inducible) nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), CD40-LR, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin 1/6/15 (IL-1/6/15). We detected no activation of heat shock protein (HSP) 27, 60, 84 and 86, osmotic stress protein 94 (Osp 94), IL-12, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1), p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP)-kinase (p38), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), CD14 and caspase genes. Furthermore, we monitored inhibition of STAT6, Janus kinase 3 (Jak3) and cyclin D1/D3 gene transcription after stimulating bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) with lipopeptide. In addition, we monitored significant differences after lipopeptide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. Our findings are of importance for further optimizing both conventional and genetic immunization, and for the development of novel synthetic vaccines.
This article was published in Int Immunopharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Neonatal Biology