Author(s): Vesy CJ, Kitchens RL, Wolfbauer G, Albers JJ, Munford RS
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Abstract Although animals mobilize their innate defenses against gram-negative bacteria when they sense the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), excessive responses to this conserved bacterial molecule can be harmful. Of the known ways for decreasing the stimulatory potency of LPS in blood, the binding and neutralization of LPS by plasma lipoproteins is most prominent. The mechanisms by which host lipoproteins take up the native LPS that is found in bacterial membranes are poorly understood, however, since almost all studies of host-LPS interactions have used purified LPS aggregates. Using native Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium outer membrane fragments (blebs) that contained (3)H-labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and (35)S-labeled protein, we found that two human plasma proteins, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), can extract [(3)H]LPS from bacterial membranes and transfer it to human high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Soluble CD14 (sCD14) did not release LPS from blebs yet could facilitate LBP-mediated LPS transfer to HDL. LBP, but not PLTP, also promoted the activation of human monocytes by bleb-derived LPS. Whereas depleting or neutralizing LBP significantly reduced LPS transfer from blebs to lipoproteins in normal human serum, neutralizing serum PLTP had no demonstrable effect. Of the known lipid transfer proteins, LBP is thus most able to transfer LPS from bacterial membranes to the lipoproteins in normal human serum.
This article was published in Infect Immun
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology