Author(s): Patricia MK, Kim JA, Harper CM, Shih PT, Berliner JA,
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Abstract The development of atherosclerosis is accelerated in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Adhesion of monocytes to the vascular endothelium is a key initial step in atherogenesis. We have previously shown that monocyte adhesion to human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) cultured long-term in high-glucose medium (25 mmol/L, 2 passages) is increased compared with cells grown in normal glucose (5 mmol/L). One potential mechanism for increased monocyte adhesion to HAECs under hyperglycemic conditions is via the 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) pathway. In this study, we demonstrated in HAECs that the major LO metabolite of arachidonic acid was the 12-LO product, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE], which was increased severalfold in HAECs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Furthermore, treatment of HAECs with 12(S)-HETE induced monocyte, but not neutrophil, adhesion an average of 3-fold (range of 1.5- to 5-fold) compared with untreated cells (75+/-5 versus 26+/-1 monocytes per field, respectively, P<0.001). Expression of the adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was not significantly increased. However, both glucose and 12(S)-HETE induced a 60\% increase in HAEC surface expression of connecting segment-1 (ie, CS-1) fibronectin, a ligand for very late-acting antigen-4 (VLA-4). The antibodies used to block monocyte integrin VLA-4 and leukocyte function-related antigen-1, a monocytic counterreceptor for intercellular adhesion molecule-1, inhibited the ability of both 12-LO products and high glucose to induce monocyte adhesion. These results definitively demonstrate for the first time in HAECs that the 12-LO pathway can induce monocyte-endothelial cell interaction and that the effects of glucose may be mediated, at least in part, through this pathway. Thus, these results suggest that the 12-LO pathway may play a role in the increased susceptibility of diabetics to atherosclerosis.
This article was published in Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism