Author(s): Milazzo L, Mazzali C, Bestetti G, Longhi E, Foschi A,
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was associated with severe fibrosis and low sustained virological response (SVR) after interferon (IFN)-based therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Furthermore, hypovitaminosis D was reported in HIV-infected individuals, but its role in liver disease progression in HIV/HCV coinfection is unknown. METHODS: 25(OH)D was retrospectively measured in 237 HIV-infected patients (93 with HCV coinfection) and 76 healthy controls. Multivariate analysis included season, immuno-virological data, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and, in a subgroup of 51 HIV/HCV-genotype 1 coinfected patients, factors influencing SVR to pegylated-IFN and ribavirin. In a group of 20 patients, liver expression of cytochrome (CY)-P27A1 and CYP2R1, 25-hydroxylating enzymes, was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Median 25(OH)D levels were 23.4 (interquartile range 16.7-33.7) ng/mL in the HIV-infected population and 24 ng/mL (18.3-29.5) in healthy controls (p=0.9). At multiple regression analysis, only winter/spring measurements correlated with lower 25(OH)D levels. No correlation with HCV coinfection, nor with cART regimens was found. Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with advanced fibrosis in HIV/HCV coinfected patients (p=0.023), whereas no association emerged with SVR to IFN-based therapy. CYP27A1 and CYP2R1 expression was associated neither with 25(OH)D serum levels nor with HCV-infection, liver histology, or cART. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, despite the high prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency, HIV and HCV-infection did not seem to influence vitamin D status. The role of HIV, HCV and cART on hypovitaminosis D needs further validation in larger cohorts that account for the vitamin levels in general populations and for seasonal and regional variability.
This article was published in Curr HIV Res
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics