Author(s): Kinnaird T, Stabile E, Burnett MS, Shou M, Lee CW,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Bone marrow cell therapy is reported to contribute to collateral formation through cell incorporation into new or remodeling vessels. However, the possible role of a paracrine contribution to this effect is less well characterized. METHODS AND RESULTS: Murine marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs) were purified by magnetic bead separation of cultured bone marrow. The release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was demonstrated by analysis of MSC conditioned media (MSC-CM). MSC-CM enhanced proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner; anti-VEGF and anti-FGF antibodies only partly attenuated these effects. Balb/C mice (n=10) underwent distal femoral artery ligation, followed by adductor muscle injection of 1x10(6) MSCs 24 hours later. Compared with controls injected with media (n=10) or mature endothelial cells (n=8), distal limb perfusion improved, and mid-thigh conductance vessels increased in number and total cross-sectional area. MSC injection improved limb function and appearance, reduced the incidence of auto-amputation, and attenuated muscle atrophy and fibrosis. After injection, labeled MSCs were seen dispersed between muscle fibers but were not seen incorporated into mature collaterals. Injection of MSCs increased adductor muscle levels of bFGF and VEGF protein compared with controls. Finally, colocalization of VEGF and transplanted MSCs within adductor tissue was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: MSCs secrete a wide array of arteriogenic cytokines. MSCs can contribute to collateral remodeling through paracrine mechanisms.
This article was published in Circulation
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy