Author(s): Nslund E, Ehrstrm M, Ma J, Hellstrm PM, Kirchgessner AL
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Abstract The orexins [orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB)] are novel neuropeptides that increase food intake in rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of orexin and orexin receptors (OX1R and OX2R) in the rat duodenum and examine the effects of intravenous orexin on fasting gut motility. OXA-like immunoreactivity was found in varicose nerve fibers in myenteric and submucosal ganglia, the circular muscle, the mucosa, submucosal and myenteric neurons, and numerous endocrine cells of the mucosa. OXA neurons displayed choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity, and a subset contained vasoactive intestinal peptide. OXA-containing endocrine cells were identified as enterochromaffin (EC) cells based on the presence of 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. OX1R was expressed by neural elements of the gut, and EC cells expressed OX2R. OXA at 100 and 500 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) significantly increased the myoelectric motor complex (MMC) cycle length compared with saline. Similarly, OXB increased the MMC cycle length at 100 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1), but there was no further effect at 500 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1). We postulate that orexins may affect the MMC through actions on enteric neurotransmission after being released from EC cells and/or enteric neurons.
This article was published in Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy