alexa Localization of important facial foramina encountered in maxillo-facial surgery.


Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

Author(s): Gupta T

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Abstract Knowledge of the location of foramina in the maxillo-facial region is necessary in clinical situations requiring regional nerve blocks and in open as well as endoscopic surgical procedures to avoid injury to corresponding nerves. In this study, measurements were taken on 79 adult dried human skulls to determine the position of the supraorbital, infraorbital, and mental foramina. Supraorbital foramina were found to be approximately 25 mm lateral to the midline, 30 mm medial to the temporal crest of the frontal bone, and 2-3 mm superior to the supraorbital rim. Additional exits for branches of the supraorbital nerve were present in 14\% of skulls. The intersection of the zygomatico-maxillary suture with the inferior orbital rim was a readily palpable landmark for locating the infraorbital foramen. This foramen was approximately 7 mm inferior to the inferior orbital rim and 28.5-mm lateral to the midline. Mental foramina were on average, 25.8-mm lateral to the midline and about 13-mm superior to the inferior mandibular margin. Both the infraorbital and mental foramina were most often on a vertical line with the second premolar (Position 3). The distances of the foramina from the midline were similar on both sides demonstrating facial symmetry. In about 80\% of skulls, the supraorbital, infraorbital, and mental foramina/notches were along the same vertical line. These measurements may be of value to clinicians in localizing and safeguarding these nerves and providing effective nerve blocks. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. This article was published in Clin Anat and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

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