Author(s): Arpadi SM, Bethel J, Horlick M, Sarr M, Bamji M, , Arpadi SM, Bethel J, Horlick M, Sarr M, Bamji M,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Alterations in regional fat are often reported in HIV infection. Prior studies have not distinguished between normal changes in regional fat related to sexual maturation and those due to HIV. The study aim was to compare changes in regional fat distribution in HIV-infected (HIV+) and healthy (HIV-) children and adolescents living in the United States. METHODS: Serial dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and two annual follow-up visits in 64 HIV+ and 147 HIV--participants aged 6-16 years. Total, leg, arm, and trunk fat masses (kg) and regional fat distribution as the percentage of total body fat (\%) were compared. RESULTS: HIV+ and HIV--participants did not differ in total fat mass, but the HIV+ group had significantly lower leg and greater arm fat and trunk fat percentage at all time points. Over time, decreases in leg fat percentage and increases in arm fat percentage were more marked among the HIV+ group. Differences between HIV+ and HIV--groups in arm and leg fat percentage remained significant when age, sex, race, height, and pubertal stage were accounted for by mixed effect modeling. Apart from prior treatment with stavudine, no differences in fat distribution were observed according to treatment or degree of immunodeficiency or viremia. CONCLUSION: Although no single pattern of change in regional fat distribution was uniquely associated with HIV, perinatally HIV-infected youth manifest significantly decreased leg fat and increased arm and trunk fat. These differences increase over time and may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk.
This article was published in AIDS
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research