Author(s): Reinehr T, de Sousa G, Toschke AM, Andler W
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Data concerning the long-term improvement of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors after an obesity intervention in children are limited. OBJECTIVE: We studied changes in weight status and CVD risk factors in children in an intervention program and evaluated whether these changes were sustained 1 y after the end of the intervention. DESIGN: We analyzed changes in the SD score (SDS) of body mass index [BMI; in kg/m2 (SDS-BMI)], blood pressure (BP), lipids, and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) over the course of 2 y in 240 obese (BMI > 97th percentile) children aged 6-14 y (x age: 10.4 y; x BMI: 26.9). Of these 240 children, 203 participated in a 1-y intervention program of physical exercise, nutrition education, and behavior therapy. We compared these children with 37 obese children who underwent no intervention and with 12 normal-weight children of the same age and sex. RESULTS: Obese children had significantly (P < 0.05) higher BP, HOMA-IR, and insulin, triacylglycerol, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did normal-weight children. Twenty-nine children dropped out of the intervention. Only in the 126 children who reduced their SDS-BMI did BP (8\% and 12\% decreases in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively), lipids (12\% and 5\% decreases in triacylglycerol and LDL cholesterol, respectively; 7\% increase in HDL cholesterol), insulin (13\% decrease), and HOMA-IR (17\% decrease) improve significantly (P < 0.05). Reduction in SDS-BMI and all benefits regarding CVD risk factors were sustained 1 y after the end of the intervention in the children whose SDS-BMI decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term multidisciplinary intervention led to a reduction in SDS-BMI in most of the obese children 1 y after the end of the intervention. Reduction in SDS-BMI was accompanied by an improvement in CVD risk factors.
This article was published in Am J Clin Nutr
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism