Author(s): Lam JS, Belldegrun AS, Pantuck AJ
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Abstract It has been 35 years since the radical nephrectomy was standardized by the work of Robson et al. (J Urol 101:297-301, 1969). Despite being based on a retrospective review of only 88 cases operated upon over a span of 15 years, this publication was an important milestone in the attempt to create uniformity in the staging of Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and the measurement of surgical outcomes for RCC. Although this manuscript forms the basis for our contemporary measurement of the long-term results of RCC surgery and set the standard to which the entire subsequent literature was compared, contemporary research subsequently has questioned many of Robson's conclusions regarding RCC. In Robson's era, the majority of patients presented with large, symptomatic tumors, pre-operative staging was imprecise, and many patients had locally advanced disease at the time of surgery: of the 88 patients in Robson's series, 75\% were managed through a thoracoabdominal incision. Since that time, advances in renal imaging and clinical staging have led to the increased detection of incidental, lower stage, organ-confined tumors more amendable to expanded surgical options. Surgical techniques have evolved and technological advances have made possible new methods of managing renal tumors in situ that have emphasized a transition from radical to less extirpative approaches. In addition, understanding of the basic biology and genetics of kidney cancer has led to improved prognostication and the development of effective immunotherapies for advanced disease. The current concepts and long-term outcomes of the surgical management of RCC will be reviewed to help elucidate some of these changes, from the evolution of open to laparoscopic to percutaneous, from radical to partial to ablative approaches.
This article was published in World J Urol
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System