Author(s): Indsto JO, Kumar S, Wang L, Crotty KA, Arbuckle SM,
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Abstract Melanocytic lesions, including Spitz nevi (SN), common benign nevi (CBN) and cutaneous metastatic melanoma (CMM), were analyzed for activating mutations in NRAS, HRAS and BRAF oncogenes, which induce cellular proliferation via the MAP kinase pathway. One of 22 (4.5\%) SN tested showed an HRAS G61L mutation. Another lesion, a 'halo' SN, showed a BRAF V600E (T1796A) mutation. BRAF V600E mutations were found in two thirds (20/31) of CBN, while a further 19\% (6/31) showed NRAS codon 61 mutations. One third of CMM (10/30) had various BRAF mutations of codon 600, and a further 6\% (2/31) showed NRAS codon 61 mutations. Seventeen SN tested for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 9p and 10q regions, known to be frequently deleted in melanoma, showed LOH at the 9p loci D9S942 and IFNA. A further lesion was found with low-level microsatellite instability at one locus, D10S214. The low rate of RAS-RAF mutations (2/22, 9.1\%) observed in SN suggests that these lesions harbor as yet undetected activating mutations in other components of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAPK pathway. Germline DNA from members of 111 multiple-case melanoma families, representing a range of known (CDKN2A) and unknown predisposing gene defects, was analyzed for germline BRAF mutations, but none was found.
This article was published in J Cutan Pathol
and referenced in Advances in Molecular Diagnostics