Author(s): Guha M, Mackman N
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Abstract Lipopolysaccharide (LPS [endotoxin]) is the principal component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Recent studies have elucidated how LPS is recognized by monocytes and macrophages of the innate immune system. Human monocytes are exquisitely sensitive to LPS and respond by expressing many inflammatory cytokines. LPS binds to LPS-binding protein (LBP) in plasma and is delivered to the cell surface receptor CD14. Next, LPS is transferred to the transmembrane signaling receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its accessory protein MD2. LPS stimulation of human monocytes activates several intracellular signaling pathways that include the IkappaB kinase (IKK)-NF-kappaB pathway and three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and 2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. These signaling pathways in turn activate a variety of transcription factors that include NF-kappaB (p50/p65) and AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun), which coordinate the induction of many genes encoding inflammatory mediators.
This article was published in Cell Signal
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology