alexa M2 polarized macrophages and giant cells contribute to myofibrosis in neuromuscular sarcoidosis.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Prokop S, Heppner FL, Goebel HH, Stenzel W

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Abstract The etiopathogenesis of sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous disease, still remains obscure. A multitude of organs have been described to be affected in systemic sarcoidosis. Skeletal muscles may also be affected, leading to myalgia and weakness. A workup of the specific immune response with emphasis on the macrophage response is provided herein. Affected muscle tissue from seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis was analyzed and compared with that from seven patients with other myopathies containing macrophagocytic infiltration. Monocytes/macrophages and giant cells in granulomas of muscle tissue from patients with sarcoidosis show a status of alternative activation (M2) based on their expression of CD206, CD301, arginase-1, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 as a consequence of a functionally type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-biased cytokine profile. Significant fibrosis and up-regulation of CCL18 were associated with the M2 phenotype of macrophages. Conversely, up-regulated Th1 cytokines did not result in significant classical activation of macrophages (M1), with poor inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 production. Giant cell formation was further associated with up-regulated expression of DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12; gene symbol TYROBP). Functionally, alternative activation of macrophages on the basis of a Th2-biased immune response may induce clinical symptoms and chronic evolution of neuromuscular sarcoidosis. This is the first characterization of Th2-mediated immune mechanisms in neuromuscular sarcoidosis suggesting that a specific macrophage activation status leading to myofibrosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Am J Pathol and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

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