alexa Macrophage activation and effector mechanisms against microbes.


Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Mauel J

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The term activation is used to designate biochemical and functional changes that are induced in macrophages by a variety of stimuli, including interaction with microbial products, synthetic substances, immunoglobulins of different classes, and factors released by lymphocytes. The changes observed comprise an increased capacity to destroy intracellular microorganisms and non-microbial target cells as well as the stimulation of biochemical pathways leading to the release of enzymes and the generation of various toxic compounds. Activation may thus be viewed as a process aimed at recalling those metabolic functions that are necessary for killing, when phagocytosis has failed to evoke them. The increased microbicidal capacity of activated macrophages is linked to the production of oxygen intermediates, as illustrated by the study of macrophage toxicity for certain intracellular protozoan parasites. Scavengers of oxygen metabolites inhibit parasite killing in macrophages; on the contrary, agents that stimulate the production or utilization of such intermediates enhance the microbicidal effect of phagocytes. Several mechanisms enable microorganisms to survive within macrophages. In some instances, intracellular survival appears to depend on the capacity of microorganisms to be endocytized without awakening the host cell oxidative machinery. In addition, the endowment of microorganisms in endogenous enzymatic scavengers of oxygen metabolites may play a role in promoting intracellular survival. These and other mechanisms, such as the property to avoid the harmful effects of lysosomal constituents by inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion, or by releasing agents that block the lysosomal enzymatic machinery, may explain why certain microbes are able to survive within activated macrophages.
This article was published in Adv Exp Med Biol and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version