alexa Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses to microbes.
Immunology

Immunology

Immunotherapy: Open Access

Author(s): Calandra T

Abstract Share this page

Among innate immune cells, macrophages play an essential role in the sensing and elimination of invasive microorganisms. Binding of microbial products to pathogen-recognition receptors stimulates macrophages to release cytokines and other effector molecules that orchestrate the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, the protein known as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has emerged as a pivotal mediator of innate immunity. First identified as a T-cell cytokine, MIF was rediscovered as a protein released by pituitary cells after exposure to endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] or bacteria and in response to stress. Monocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes constitutively express MIF, which is rapidly released after stimulation with bacterial endotoxins and exotoxins, and cytokines. MIF induces powerful proinflammatory biological responses and has been shown to be an important effector molecule of septic shock. High levels of MIF have been detected in the circulation of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Inhibition of MIF activity with neutralizing anti-MIF antibodies or deletion of the Mif gene led to a marked reduction in cytokine production and protected mice from lethal bacterial sepsis and toxic shock induced by Gram-negative endotoxin or Gram-positive exotoxins. Investigations into the mechanisms whereby MIF modulates innate immune responses to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria have shown that MIF up-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the signal-transducing molecule of the LPS receptor complex. Thus, MIF enables cells, such as the macrophage, that are at the forefront of the host antimicrobial defences, to sense promptly the presence of invading Gram-negative bacteria and mount an innate immune response. Given that it is a pivotal regulator of innate immune responses to bacterial infections, MIF appears to be a perfect target for novel therapeutic interventions in patients with severe sepsis.
  • To read the full article Visit
  • Open Access
This article was published in Scand J Infect Dis and referenced in Immunotherapy: Open Access

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords