Author(s): Simpson JL
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Abstract The genetics and clinical delineation of male pseudohermaphroditism are reviewed. These disorders are categorized initially by their genetic etiology--cytogenetic, Mendelian, or teratogenic. It is especially important to distinguish cytogenetic forms, usually associated with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, from Mendelian (genetic) forms because in the former the prevalence of gonadoblastomas or dysgerminomas is about 15--20\%. Genetic forms include (1) those associated with a multiple malformation pattern, (2) those due to an error in adrenal or testicular hormonal biosynthesis, (3) complete testicular feminization, (4) incomplete testicular feminization, (5) Reifenstein syndrome, (6) pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias, and (7) agondia, and possibly other conditions. Incomplete testicular feminization and the Reifenstein syndrome may or may not represent varied expressivity of the same trait. The designation pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias is appropriate only if constellations of clinical features are present and if no metabolic abnormalities are demonstrable. Etiology and available genetic data are reviewed for each of these disorders.
This article was published in Hum Genet
and referenced in JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research