Author(s): Hooton TM, Stam WE
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Abstract Acute uncomplicated UTI is one of the most common problems for which young women seek medical attention, and it accounts for considerable morbidity and health care costs. Acute cystitis is a superficial infection of the bladder mucosa, whereas pyelonephritis involves tissue invasion of the upper urinary tract. Localization tests suggest that as many as one third of episodes of acute cystitis are associated with silent upper tract involvement. Acute cystitis or pyelonephritis in the adult patient should be considered uncomplicated if the patient is not pregnant or elderly, if there has been no recent instrumentation or antimicrobial treatment, and if there are no known functional or anatomic abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Most of these infections are caused by E. coli, which are susceptible to many oral antimicrobials. Because of the superficial nature of cystitis, single-dose and 3-day regimens have gained wide acceptance as the preferred methods of treatment. Review of the published data suggests that a 3-day regimen is more effective than a single-dose regimen for all antimicrobials tested. Regimens with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole appear to be more effective than those with beta-lactams, regardless of the duration. Acute pyelonephritis does not necessarily imply a complicated infection. Upper tract infection with highly virulent uropathogens in an otherwise healthy woman may be considered an uncomplicated infection. The optimal treatment duration for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis has not been established, and 14-day regimens are often used. We prefer to use antimicrobials that attain high renal tissue levels, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or quinolones, for pyelonephritis. Women with frequently recurring infections can be successfully managed by continuous prophylaxis, either daily or thrice-weekly, by postcoital prophylaxis, or, in compliant patients, by early self-administration of single-dose or 3-day therapy as soon as typical symptoms are noted. Our drug of choice for all these regimens is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Acute uncomplicated cystitis in adult men is very uncommon, but it is occasionally noted in homosexual men who practice insertive and intercourse or in heterosexual men whose partners have vaginal colonization with E. coli.
This article was published in Med Clin North Am
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacovigilance