alexa Management of radiation-induced occlusive arterial disease: a reassessment.


Atherosclerosis: Open Access

Author(s): Mellire D, Becquemin JP, Berrahal D, Desgranges P, Cavillon A

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Abstract BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to evaluate the operative hazards, therapeutic procedures, and late results of arterial reconstruction for radiation-induced occlusive disease. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were referred to our institution for radiation-induced occlusive arterial disease. Group 1: carotid artery stenosis or occlusion was encountered in seven patients. The nine procedures employed included percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (n = 2), carotid endarterectomy (n = 3), vein or prosthetic bypass (n = 4). Group 2: four patients presenting with subclavian and axillary artery occlusion were treated with a common carotid to brachial artery vein bypass, one after unsuccessful PTA. Group 3: Thirteen patients had aorto-iliac occlusion. Initial management included medical treatment (n = 1), PTA (n = 2), aorto-bifemoral bypass (n = 4), aortofemoral and iliofemoral bypass (n = 1 each), axillofemoral bypass (n = 3), femorofemoral bypass (n = 1). Group 4: One patient had femoral artery occlusion treated with PTA. RESULTS: Group 1: One of two PTA was successful. Endarterectomy or bypass were successful in all cases. One late vein bypass stenosis was treated by venous patch angioplasty. Group 2: All vein bypasses were successful. Group 3: Limb salvage was achieved in all patients but eight required repeat operations for prosthetic sepsis (n = 3), restenosis (n = 3), or thrombosis (n = 12). Two patients died of late sepsis. Group 4: Outcome after PTA was successful. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Surgery for radiation-induced arterial lesions is difficult because of arterial, periarterial, and cutaneous sclerosis. Some patients, however, are amenable to PTA or endarterectomy. When bypass is necessary, anastomosis should be performed in healthy arteries, for instance, the thoracic aorta for the proximal anastomosis, or the brachial artery approached through a lateral mid-arm incision. 2) The risk of early or late graft infection is enhanced by the presence of tracheostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy and by repeat operation for thrombosis. PTA, endarterectomy, or vein bypass should be preferred whenever feasible. When prosthetic material is unavoidable, prevention of infection should include the use of omentoplasty, remote bypass, antibiotic-bonded grafts or, in the case of major sepsis, allografts. 3) As restenosis remains a frequent complication, annual clinical and Duplex-scan surveillance is mandatory.
This article was published in J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) and referenced in Atherosclerosis: Open Access

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