Author(s): Crimmins CR, Rathbun SR, Husmann DA
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Abstract PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influences the resolution of urinary incontinence (UI, or diurnal and nocturnal wetness) and monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with ADHD, UI and NE. Individuals with UI were treated with timed voiding, and anticholinergics were added only after timed voiding failed. Patients with NE were treated with either an enuretic alarm, desmopressin or imipramine. Statistical comparisons used a control population matched for age, sex, IQ, and urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: The presence of ADHD had a negative effect on the resolution of incontinence, with 68\% of the patients with ADHD becoming continent compared to 91\% of controls (p <0.01). Two factors impact the resolution of wetness in patients with ADHD-treatment noncompliance and IQ. Treatment noncompliance was found in 48\% of the patients with ADHD compared to 14\% of controls (p <0.01). The IQ of patients with ADHD affected success, with 32\% of children with an IQ of less than 84 achieving continence compared to 80\% of those with an IQ of 84 or greater (p <0.01). Patients with ADHD and NE responded similarly to controls when using desmopressin and imipramine. However, they were less likely to exhibit a durable response following management with an enuretic alarm (19\% vs 66\%, p <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of urinary incontinence in children with ADHD is impaired compared to those without ADHD, and is directly affected by compliance and IQ.
This article was published in J Urol
and referenced in Clinics in Mother and Child Health