alexa Managing the incidentally detected gallbladder cancer: algorithms and controversies.


Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System

Author(s): Cavallaro A, Piccolo G, Di Vita M, Zangh A, Card F,

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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the fifth most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common cancer of the biliary tract. GBC is suspected preoperatively in only 30-40\% of patients. The other 60-70\% are discovered incidentally (IGBC) by the pathologist on a gallbladder specimen following cholecystectomy for benign diseases such as polyps, gallstones, and cholecystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2011, 30 cases of GBC, who underwent resection with curative intent in our institutions, were retrospectively reviewed. They were analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and survival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. Overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS) and the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention were analyzed. The authors also present a systematic review to evaluate the role of extended surgery in the treatment of the incidental GBC. RESULTS: GBC was diagnosed in 30 patients, 16 women and 14 men. The M/F ratio was 1:1.14 and the mean age was 69.4 years (range 45-83 years). A preoperative diagnosis was possible only in 14 cases; fourteen of the incidental cases were diagnosed postoperatively after the pathological examination; two were suspected intraoperatively at the opening of the surgical specimen and then confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 1, 14/1, with twelve cases discovered after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Eighty-one per cent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (≤II). The preoperative diagnosis of the 30 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases); gallbladder abscess perforated into hepatic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case); porcelain gallbladder (three cases); gallbladder adenoma (four cases); and chronic cholecystolithiasis (thirteen cases). Every case, except one, with a T1b or more advanced invasion underwent IVb + V wedge liver resection and pericholedochic/hepatoduodenal lymphoadenectomy. One patient refused further surgery. Cases with Tis and T1a involvement were treated with cholecystectomy alone. Nine of the sixteen patients with incidental diagnosis reached 5-year DFS (56.25\%) and eight of them are recurrence free. Surprisingly, one patient reached 38 mo survival despite a port-site recurrence (the only one in our experience) 2 years after the original surgery requiring further resection. Cases with non incidental diagnosis were more locally advanced and only two patients experienced 5 years DFS (Tables 2 and 3). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not affect survival if implemented properly. Reoperation should have two objectives: R0 resection and clearance of the lymph nodes. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This article was published in Int J Surg and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System

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