alexa Mandibular changes produced by functional appliances in Class II malocclusion: a systematic review.



Author(s): Cozza P, Baccetti T, Franchi L, De Toffol L, McNamara JA Jr

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Abstract The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to assess the scientific evidence on the efficiency of functional appliances in enhancing mandibular growth in Class II subjects. A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed). The survey covered the period from January 1966 to January 2005 and used the medical subject headings (MeSH). The following study types that reported data on treatment effects were included: randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and prospective and retrospective longitudinal controlled clinical trials (CCTs) with untreated Class II controls. The search strategy resulted in 704 articles. After selection according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 22 articles qualified for the final analysis. Four RCTs and 18 CCTs were retrieved. The quality standards of these investigations ranged from low (3 studies) to medium/high (6 studies). Two-thirds of the samples in the 22 studies reported a clinically significant supplementary elongation in total mandibular length (a change greater than 2.0 mm in the treated group compared with the untreated group) as a result of overall active treatment with functional appliances. The amount of supplementary mandibular growth appears to be significantly larger if the functional treatment is performed at the pubertal peak in skeletal maturation. None of the 4 RCTs reported a clinically significant change in mandibular length induced by functional appliances; 3 of the 4 RCTs treated subjects at a prepubertal stage of skeletal maturity. The Herbst appliance showed the highest coefficient of efficiency (0.28 mm per month) followed by the Twin-block (0.23 mm per month). This article was published in Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop and referenced in Dentistry

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