Author(s): Xu L, Chen S, Bergan RC
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Abstract Although cell invasion is a necessary early step in cancer metastasis, its regulation is not well understood. We have previously shown, in human prostate cancer, that transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-mediated increases in cell invasion are dependent upon activation of the serine/threonine kinase, p38 MAP kinase. In the current study, downstream effectors of p38 MAP kinase were sought by first screening for proteins phosphorylated after TGFbeta treatment, only in the absence of chemical inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase. This led us to investigate mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2), a known substrate of p38 MAP kinase, as well as heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27), a known substrate of MAPKAPK2, in both PC3 and PC3-M human prostate cells. After transient transfection, wild-type MAPKAPK2 and HSP27 both increased TGFbeta-mediated matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP-2) activity, as well as cell invasion, which in turn was inhibited by SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase. Conversely, dominant-negative MAPKAPK2 blocked phosphorylation of HSP27, whereas dominant-negative MAPKAPK2 or mutant, non-phosphorylateable, HSP27 each blocked TGFbeta-mediated increases in MMP-2, as well as cell invasion. Similarly, knock down of MAPKAPK2, HSP27 or both together, by siRNA, also blocked TGFbeta-mediated cell invasion. This study demonstrates that both MAPKAPK2 and HSP27 are necessary for TGFbeta-mediated increases in MMP-2 and cell invasion in human prostate cancer.
This article was published in Oncogene
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System