Author(s): Teijaro JR, Walsh KB, Rice S, Rosen H, Oldstone MB
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Abstract During pathogenic influenza virus infection, robust cytokine production (cytokine storm), excessive inflammatory infiltrates, and virus-induced tissue destruction all contribute to morbidity and mortality. Earlier we reported that modulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 receptor (S1P1R) signaling provided a chemically tractable approach for the effective blunting of cytokine storm, leading to the improvement of clinical and survival outcomes. Here, we show that S1P1R agonist treatment suppresses global cytokine amplification. Importantly, S1P1R agonist treatment was able to blunt cytokine/chemokine production and innate immune cell recruitment in the lung independently of endosomal and cytosolic innate sensing pathways. S1P1R signaling suppression of cytokine amplification was independent of multiple innate signaling adaptor pathways for myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and IFN-β promoter stimulator-1 signaling, indicating a common pathway inhibition of cytokine storm. We identify the MyD88 adaptor molecule as responsible for the majority of cytokine amplification observed following influenza virus challenge.
This article was published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology