Author(s): Montaner J, Molina CA, Monasterio J, Abilleira S, Arenillas JF,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression is related to blood brain barrier disruption after cerebral ischemia. Moreover, MMP inhibitors reduce hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after embolic ischemia in tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-treated animals. We aimed to correlate plasmatic MMP levels with the appearance of intracranial bleeding complications in stroke patients treated with t-PA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serial MMP-2 and MMP-9 determinations were performed (ELISA, ng/mL) in 41 strokes involving the middle cerebral artery territory in patients who received t-PA within 3 hours of stroke onset. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (pretreatment) and at 12 and 24 hours after symptom onset. Hemorrhagic events were classified according to CT criteria (petechial hemorrhagic infarctions [HI, 1 to 2] and large parenchymal hemorrhages [PH, 1 to 2]). Brain CT scan was obtained at 48 hours or when a neurological worsening occurred. HT was present in 36.5\% of the patients (24.4\% HI and 12.1\% PH). MMP-2 values were unrelated to any subtype of HT. The highest baseline MMP-9 level (normal range <97 ng/mL) corresponded to patients who later developed a PH (PH: 270.2+/-87.8, non-HT: 126.3+/-127.5, HI: 94.6+/-88.7; P=0.047). A graded response was found between mean baseline MMP-9 levels and the degree of bleeding (HI-1=37.4; HI-2=111.0; PH-1=202.5; PH-2=337.8). Baseline MMP-9 was the most powerful predictor of PH appearance in the multiple logistic regression model (OR= 9.62; CI 1.31 to 70.26; P=0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline MMP-9 level predicts PH appearance after t-PA treatment. Therefore, we suggest that MMP determination may increase the safety profile for thrombolysis and, in the future, anti-MMP drugs might be combined with t-PA to prevent hemorrhagic complications.
This article was published in Circulation
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta