Author(s): Vosough M, Bayat M, Salemi A
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Abstract In the present study a second-order calibration strategy for high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been developed using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and has been applied for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) in pistachio nuts in the presence of matrix interferences. Sample preparation was based on solvent extraction (SE) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Bond Elut C18 cartridges. Since the sample preparation procedure was not selective to the analytes of interest, exploiting second-order advantage to obtain concentrations of individual analytes in the presence of uncalibrated interfering compounds seemed necessary. Appropriate pre-processing steps have been applied to correct background signals and the effect of retention time shifts. Transferred calibration data set obtained from standardization of solvent based calibration data has been used in prediction step. The results of PARAFAC on a set of spiked and naturally contaminated pistachio nuts indicated that the four aflatoxins could be successfully determined. The method was validated and multivariate analytical figures of merit were calculated. The advantages of the proposed method are using a low-cost SPE step relative to standard method of aflatoxin analysis (immune affinity column assay), a unique and simple isocratic elution program for all samples and a calibration transfer for saving both chemicals and time of analysis. This study show that coupling of SPE-HPLC-DAD with PARAFAC as a powerful second-order calibration method can be considered as an alternative method for resolution and quantification of aflatoxins in the presence of unknown interferences obtained through analysis of highly complex matrix of pistachio samples and cost per analysis can be reduced significantly. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Anal Chim Acta
and referenced in International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining