Author(s): Sugiyama T, Yoneda M, Kuraishi T, Hattori S, Inoue Y,
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Abstract Oncolytic viruses hold much promise as novel therapeutic agents that can be combined with conventional therapeutic modalities. Measles virus (MV) is known to enter cells using the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), which is expressed on cells of the immune system. Although human breast cancer cell lines do not express SLAM, we found that a wild-type MV (HL strain) efficiently infected various breast cancer cell lines, causing cell death. Based on this finding, we used reverse genetics to generate a recombinant MV selectively unable to use SLAM (rMV-SLAMblind). The rMV-SLAMblind lacked infectivity for SLAM-positive lymphoid cells, while retaining oncolytic activity against breast cancer cells. We showed that, unlike the MV vaccine strains, rMV-SLAMblind used PVRL4 (polio virus receptor-related 4) as a receptor to infect breast cancer cells and not the ubiquitously expressed CD46. Consistent with this, rMV-SLAMblind infected CD46-positive primary normal human cells at a much-reduced level, whereas a vaccine strain of the Edmonston lineage (rMV-Edmonston) efficiently infected and killed them. The rMV-SLAMblind showed antitumor activity against human breast cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice. The oncolytic activity of rMV-SLAMblind was significantly greater than that of rMV-Edmonston. To assess the in vivo safety, three monkeys seronegative for MV were inoculated with rMV-SLAMblind, and no clinical symptoms were documented. On the basis of these results, rMV-SLAMblind could be a promising candidate as a novel oncolytic virus for breast cancer treatment.
This article was published in Gene Ther
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology