alexa Measuring bioavailability: from a scientific approach to standard methods.
Nursing

Nursing

Journal of Nursing & Care

Author(s): Harmsen J

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Biological effects are not related to the total concentration of a contaminant in the soil and soil-like materials. Organisms respond only to the fraction that is biologically available. The bioavailable fractions of contaminants are dependent on soil properties and various processes varying with time and on the behavior or the target organism. Bioavailability may be assessed in two complementary ways: (i) by chemical methods (e.g., extraction methods), which determine a defined available fraction of a well defined class of contaminants; and (ii) by biological methods, which expose organisms to soil or soil eluates to monitor effects. Although there is scientific discussion on the concept of bioavailability, the literature gives enough evidence to recognize bioavailability as a promising tool in risk assessment. A large number of methods are available. Under regulatory aspects of soil protection, a risk assessment should be based on the same common concept of determination and assessment of exposure and measuring and assessment of effects. A harmonized framework on bioavailability is necessary to promote the development and introduction of workable (international) standard methods to be used in soil and site assessment. The working group 'Bioavailability' of ISO/TC190-Soil Quality has developed a guidance document for development and selection of methods to assess bioavailability for different target species with regard to several classes of contaminants. The way to this standard, on the border of science and regulation, is described in this article. This article was published in J Environ Qual and referenced in Journal of Nursing & Care

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords