Author(s): Takeo M, Murakami M, Niihara S, Yamamoto K, Nishimura M,
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Abstract 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) is a toxic product of the hydrolysis of organophosphorus pesticides such as parathion in soil. Rhodococcus sp. strain PN1 degrades 4-NP via 4-nitrocatechol (4-NC) for use as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. A 5-kb EcoRI DNA fragment previously cloned from PN1 contained a gene cluster (nphRA1A2) involved in 4-NP oxidation. From sequence analysis, this gene cluster is expected to encode an AraC/XylS family regulatory protein (NphR) and a two-component 4-NP hydroxylase (NphA1 and NphA2). A transcriptional assay in a Rhodococcus strain revealed that the transcription of nphA1 is induced by only 4-NP (of several phenolic compounds tested) in the presence of nphR, which is constitutively expressed. Disruption of nphR abolished transcriptional activity, suggesting that nphR encodes a positive regulatory protein. The two proteins of the 4-NP hydroxylase, NphA1 and NphA2, were independently expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by ion-exchange chromatography or affinity chromatography. The purified NphA2 reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) with the concomitant oxidation of NADH, while the purified NphA1 oxidized 4-NP into 4-NC almost quantitatively in the presence of FAD, NADH, and NphA2. This functional analysis, in addition to the sequence analysis, revealed that this enzyme system belongs to the two-component flavin-diffusible monooxygenase family. The 4-NP hydroxylase showed comparable oxidation activities for phenol and 4-chlorophenol to that for 4-NP and weaker activities for 3-NP and 4-NC.
This article was published in J Bacteriol
and referenced in Industrial Engineering & Management