Author(s): Zheng W
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Abstract Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) enzymes or sirtuins are a family of evolutionarily conserved intracellular protein deacetylases that can catalyze the acetyl group removal from the specific Nε-acetyl-lysine (AcK) side chains on a variety of proteins from all kingdoms of life. Yeast Sir2 was the first sirtuin identified, and so far seven sirtuins (i.e. SIRT1-7) have been found in mammals including humans. The sirtuin-catalyzed deacetylation reaction has captured tremendous interest during the past a few years because of (i) its increasingly demonstrated importance in many crucial biological processes such as gene transcription, metabolism, and aging, and thus its therapeutic potential for metabolic and age-related diseases and cancer, and (ii) its unique deacetylation chemistry. Specifically, the sirtuin-catalyzed AcK side chain deacetylation is not merely an amide hydrolysis reaction, instead is coupled to the nicotinamide cleavage from β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD+ or NAD+) with the generation of three enzymatic products, i.e. the deacetylated protein species, nicotinamide, and 2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (2'-O-AADPR). Here the author would like to review the past endeavors on developing mechanism-based sirtuin modulators (inhibitors and activators). The first part of this article will provide an updated mechanistic picture of the sirtuin-catalyzed deacetylation reaction. The second part will be focused on how the mechanistic knowledge has been exploited for the design of effective sirtuin modulators.
This article was published in Mini Rev Med Chem
and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry