Author(s): Lee VH, Robinson JR
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Abstract The low ocular bioavailability of topically applied pilocarpine is attributed to extensive precorneal drug loss in conjection with the resistance to corneal penetration. Several elements of precorneal loss were reported earlier, but a complete mechanistic understanding has not been available. The present study was designed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms governing pilocarpine disposition in the precorneal areas as well as the relative influence of these parameters on ocular drug bioavailability. Radioactive pilocarpine and glycerin solutions were instilled into the precorneal area of the albino rabbit eye under various experimental conditions, and the drug concentration in the lacrimal lake was monitored as a function of time. The results demonstrated that nonconjunctival loss of pilocarpine, vasodilation due to the drug, and lacrimation due to vehicle formulation are additional aspects of precorneal drug disposition. The individual influence of all precorneal loss parameters on drug bioavailability was then assessed using a mathematical model formulated from experimental findings on both precorneal and intraocular drug disposition. Drainage and vasodilation, as well as nonconjunctival pilocarpine loss, exerted major influences on drug loss at the absorption site.
This article was published in J Pharm Sci
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology