Author(s): Shubha Ratna Shakya, Shyam Narayan Labh
Aquaculture is a source of livelihood for many ec onomically under privileged people in the least developed countries including Nepal. In recent years, with intensification and rapid development of aquaculture enterprises, occurren ce of infectious diseases has cau se huge economic losses. The main disease causative agents are bacteria, virus and parasites. The excess use of antibiotics and various synthetic chemicals have resulted in drug residue a nd resistant pathogens in treated fish. Drug residue pollutes the environment and threatens humans consuming them. Antibiotics that accumulate in the environment and fish pose a potential threat to c onsumers and to the environment. Increased public awareness of the negative effects caused by overexposur e to synthetic chemicals has led to search for ‘‘green drugs’’ such as organic a nd synthetic chemical-free food produc ts. In this regard, garlic ( Allium sativum ) as a natural antibiotic is the earliest known medi cinal plant, has shown to be effective for the treatment of many diseases in humans and animals owing to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antihypertensive properties. In aquacultural operations, optimized dose of garlic is strongly recommended. Hence, this review focuses on the appl ication of garlic in on growth performance, flesh quality, antimicrobial activity, as an immunostimu lant and antiprotozoal agent in aquaculture.