alexa Megaesophagus in 15 llamas: a retrospective study (1985-1993).
Nephrology

Nephrology

Journal of Kidney

Author(s): Watrous BJ, Pearson EG, Smith BB, Snyder SP, Blythe LL,

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Abstract Megaesophagus was diagnosed in 15 llamas on the basis of survey and contrast radiography. Age of onset ranged from 13 months to 9.5 years. Clinical signs varied, with salivation being the most common; regurgitation or dysphagia were noted in only 33\% of the cases. Duration of the disorder ranged from 1 week to 5 years. Organophosphate toxicity was the cause of megaesophagus in 1 llama. While most cases were of unknown etiology, the 3 with histological abnormalities included 1 with vagal neuropathy and 2 with a degenerative myopathy of esophageal muscles. The causes in most were undetermined.
This article was published in J Vet Intern Med and referenced in Journal of Kidney

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