alexa MEKKs, GCKs, MLKs, PAKs, TAKs, and tpls: upstream regulators of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases?
Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development

Author(s): Fanger GR, Gerwins P, Widmann C, Jarpe MB, Johnson GL, Fanger GR, Gerwins P, Widmann C, Jarpe MB, Johnson GL

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Abstract Regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members - which include the extracellular response kinases (ERKs), p38/HOG1, and the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) - plays a central role in mediating the effects of diverse stimuli encompassing cytokines, hormones, growth factors and stresses such as osmotic imbalance, heat shock, inhibition of protein synthesis and irradiation. A rapidly increasing number of kinases that activate the JNK pathways has been described recently, including the MAPK/ERK kinase kinases, p21-activated kinases, germinal center kinase, mixed lineage kinases, tumor progression locus 2, and TGF-beta-activated kinase. Thus, regulation of the JNK pathway provides an interesting example of how many different stimuli can converge into regulating pathways critical for the determination of cell fate.
This article was published in Curr Opin Genet Dev and referenced in Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development

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